One of the first things that has to happen when I start working on a new project, is to ensure that mail sending is handled by a third-party service. Preferably something like Mandrill or Mailgun. I have no desire to maintain mailservers, SMTP stuff and what not.
Today I had a challenge, when moving a lot of old code to a new Linode server. Most of the code was sending e-mails through a third party package, and was already configured to send through Mandrill. However, some of the code was still using
mail(), so I had to somehow configure
sendmail to run on the server, in order to not break the app. Just the name,
sendmail, makes my palms sweaty.
In the end, I came up with a really simple solution that can easily run until that code has been refactored.
Step 1: Install
First of all, we need a
sendmail binary. I’m writing ‘a’ and not ‘the’, since multiple Ubuntu packages can provide a
sendmail binary. Take a look at this:
$ sendmail The program 'sendmail' can be found in the following packages: * exim4-daemon-heavy * exim4-daemon-light * lsb-invalid-mta * postfix * citadel-mta * courier-mta * dma * esmtp-run * lsb-invalid-mta * masqmail * msmtp-mta * nullmailer * qmail-run * sendmail-bin * ssmtp * xmail Ask your administrator to install one of them
The ‘trick’ here is to use nullmailer, which is a small program that can only forward e-mails to another MTA (message transfer agent). At least as far as I have understood. Anyways, installing nullmailer on Ubuntu is pretty pain-free:
$ sudo apt-get install nullmailer
Step 2: Configure nullmailer
While installing, you will be prompted for a few options. First thing, you need to provide the fully-qualified host name for the server. You will know better than me what this is! Next thing, nullmailer will allow you to specify a ‘smarthost’ to connect to. Here is the one I used for Mandrill:
smtp.mandrillapp.com smtp --user=[username] --pass=[password] --port=587
If at some point you want to edit this, you can do so in
Step 3: Test it out
To test it out, you can try to send a test e-mail from the server. First, create a text file with the e-mail:
# testmail.txt Subject: Test mail from server This is a test mail from sendmail.
Now, use sendmail to send the e-mail:
sendmail firstname.lastname@example.org < testmail.txt
You can check you mail queue to see if the message was sent:
And that’s it!